Four basic elements are in play during electrical sound broadcasting: (1) A Sound Source, (2) A Sound Transmission System, (3) An Audience, (4) An Environment.
The beginning of any audible sound begins with vibrations. Some examples are vocal chords or the strum of guitar strings. By definition, vibrations cause fluctuations in a medium - in our case the medium is air.
The next stop is propagation through a sound transmission system. This system consists of 2 conversion points and a manipulation stage. The Signal Input is the first conversion point where one type of energy (acoustical) is converted to electrical energy - this is called transduction. An example of this is what happens when a microphone is used. Next is the signal transfer and processing stage. Here the original signal's electrical energy is typically manipulated by a preamplifier and power amplifier. If there is external signal mixing or other type of complexities added to the original signal, then it would also occur during the signal processing stage.
Now it's time to send our processed signal back out into the world for us to hear. This happens in the Signal Output stage. Here electrical energy is converted back to acoustical energy. This is done by the loudspeaker. After the loudspeaker has done it's job our Audience can experience the processed sound signal, but don't forget that the sound signal can still be modified by Environmental factors like wind, temperature, other competing signals, etc. All of the factors contribute to how the Audience eventually experiences our sound signals.
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